5 Basic Tools You Must Have for DIY Electronic Repair

We all have electronic devices in our homes. Some of the most common electronic devices found in households include smartphones, televisions, audio systems, video game consoles, and appliances. If one of these devices were to malfunction, it would cost you anywhere from $50 to $1,000+ to replace it. Certain electronics cost more than others, of course.

Alternatively, you could hire a technician to repair the electronic device for you. But even then, you’d still have to pay them $50+ per hour for their services. What if you could avoid spending all this money and repair the electronic device yourself? All you need to do is purchase five basic tools. Then you can use them whenever you need to repair an electronic device, and it won’t cost you a penny more. And to learn about basic electronic circuits, components and devices, you can read the articles on electrowebs.com or other electronic sites on internet.

Let’s examine those five tools below.

1) Soldering Iron

A soldering iron is a handheld tool that can melt a fusible metal alloy so that two metal workpieces can be adjoined together permanently. Electricity is used to heat the metal tip at the end of the soldering iron. You put the iron tip on the metal that you want to melt and bond.

Electronics consist of many different metal components. If specific metal components no longer have a connection because they’re old or worn out, a soldering iron can help reestablish a stronger bond between them.

Read also: Triode Working Principle

2) Vacuum Desoldering Pump

A vacuum desoldering pump is a handheld device used for removing the solder that you’d find on a printed circuit board. The classic desoldering pump is a manually operated device, but the vacuum desoldering pump is electrically operated. Think of it as a solder sucker.

If you want to remove metal components from a circuit board, you would need to use the vacuum desoldering pump. It is much easier to use than the manually operated pump because the electrical operation makes its solder removal automated. The device looks like a thick pen, which lets you hold it very easily in your hand.

3) Multimeter

A multimeter is an instrument for measuring the electrical voltage, resistance, and current of an electronic device. It is a standard device used in both the electrical industry and electronic industry. Electricians and electronic technicians always have a multimeter on them to measure the electrical values of the devices.

For a DIY electronic project, you cannot go without a multimeter. It allows you to take the proper electrical measurements so you can stay safe while working on your projects. It is better to use a digital multimeter such as Sanwa PC7000 because it is more accurate, and it is easier to operate.

4) Screw Drivers

You probably have a screw driver lying somewhere around your house. However, it is likely too big for the screw drivers you’ll need for performing electronic repair projects yourself. But keep the bigger screw drivers handy because you might need them for the outer shell of your electronic devices.

In many cases, you’ll need extra small screw drivers to remove tiny screws from the circuit board or to install the screws tightly into the board. We recommend that you purchase screw driver kits with screw drivers of different sizes in them. Then you’ll always have a compatible screw driver available for the screws of your electronics.

Read also: Top 20 Best Phones with Infrared IR Blasters

5) Pliers

Pliers are another tool you might have lying around the house. They are generally used to hold or grip metal objects securely in place. Sometimes they can remove screws or nails if your screw driver and hammer cannot do the job. You could also use pliers to cut wire and bend objects.

There are multiple types of pliers available. Some have side cutters on them while others have flat metal tongs. We recommend you purchase a kit with various types of pliers in them.

The Difference Between Single-Chip Microcomputer Vs Micro-controller Vs Microprocessor

Are you struggling with the decision of deciding to buy a single-chip microcomputer, or micro-controller, or microprocessor? Well, you’ve come to the right place for we will share the main differences that will guide your purchase.

In comparing the three technologies, we will look at them individually, thereafter, mention the main differences.

Single-Chip Microcomputer

The best way to define a microcomputer is by its size, price, and capability. In terms of size, it is relatively smaller than a microprocessor and micro-controller. It is relatively inexpensive. It is a limited capability computer.

A single-chip microcomputer has the same architectural structure found in computers. The size of the microcomputer has continuously been reduced, and nowadays you will find their size being similar to the size of a notebook.

They can be accessed easily because of their relatively cheaper price. However, they are not very powerful and have limited internal operations and instructions. One of the best examples of a microcomputer is the Commodore 64, which was the bestselling model.


Defined by size and cost, a micro-controller is small and of low cost. It has a special design for performing specific tasks such as receiving remote signals and displaying microwave information.

An ideal micro-controller should have the processor, memory (RAM, ROM, and EPROM), peripherals (timers and counters), serial ports, etc.

There are various types of micro-controllers such as Bit, Memory, and Instruction Set. These types have their subcategories, which define how they are used further.

Micro-controllers have various functions such as light sensing, temperature sensing, fire detection, and measuring devices.


The main function of a microprocessor is to process micro-instructions. The instructions are coded in the form of 0s and 1s.

Usually, the microprocessor is available as a single integrated circuit. The main components of a microprocessor are the Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) and the Control Unit (CU). An example of a microprocessor is Intel 8085.

A microprocessor is more effective than both the microcomputer and micro-controller because of its wide range of uses and its flexibility in configuration. It is also more expansive than the two because of their performance and complexity.

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So, if you are unsure about the differences, just remember the following:

– Microprocessors are more expensive than microcomputers and micro-controllers

– Microprocessors are faster than microcomputers and micro-controllers

– Microcomputers are for use by single users at a time

– Micro-controllers and microcomputers are less complex than microprocessors.

Now you have an idea and can make an informed purchasing decision.

Triode Working Principle

A triode is an electron tube that consists of three electrodes, an anode plate, a cathode filament, and a control grid. A triode is usually used as an amplifier for audio signals, in electrical circuits, and as an oscillator.

Small glass triodes are mainly used as audio amplifiers while the large triodes are used as radio transmitters for radio frequency.

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This segment will highlight the operation and explain the working principle of the triode.

The first process in the working of a triode is called thermionic emission. In this process, heat is applied to the metal cathode to release electrons into the tube.

A separate current flowing through the filament heats the cathode red hot. The filament is a thin metal that conducts electricity. In powerful triodes that generate radio frequency, the cathode is usually the filament itself. However, in most triodes, the filament is separate and heats the cathode electrode.

The air in the tube is removed virtually through electron transfer. This allows the electrons to move freely within the tube.

A positive DC voltage is applied to the anode. The voltage ranges from 20V to thousands. Once the anode is positively charged, the negative electrons are attracted to the anode. A flow of electrons from the cathode to anode is created as the positive and negative electrons attract.

How is the magnitude of currents controlled?

To control the magnitude of currents flowing between the cathode and anode, an appropriate voltage is applied between the grid and the cathode. The grid is the electrons’ gate. If the grid is more negative, it repels some electrons to reduce the current since fewer will get through the anode. A more positive grid attracts more electrons and increases the current since more electrons will get to the anode.


Amplification is a resulting process where a low power varying signal control a much powerful anode current.

If there is variation in the grid voltage, it will result in proportional variations in the anode current.

Voltage gain

This is the result of the placement of appropriate load resistance in the anode circuit to cause the voltage across the resistance to vary and it could be larger than the input voltage variations.

In operation, the triode is similar to the n-channel JFET. However, the difference is that the triode’s anode current depends on the anode voltage and grid voltage.

This is the basic working principle of the triode.

Top 20 Best Phones with Infrared IR Blasters

Can’t find your TV remote? The room is too hot, then you want to cool it down, but the remote for AC is nowhere to be found? You can solve all these problems by using your Smartphone. But, what you need here is the Smartphone that has an IR Blaster feature. This feature is infrared hardware that allows your phone to send commands using the infrared rays. And, the remote control for TV or AC uses a similar concept. Therefore, you also can control your device with your phone. Below, we already chose 20 Smartphones with the IR Blaster feature you can try. Let’s start!

1.     Huawei P30 Pro

Huawei P30 Pro is one of the smartphones that have IR Blaster. This product also is a perfect choice for high-performance smartphones. As you can see, this phone uses the Kirin 980 chipset and 8 GB of RAM. These two core components provide the fastest and smoothest performance for this phone. Moreover, you also can find a top-quality camera and feature in this phone, including 5x optical zoom and even 50x digital zoom. You can choose it for its IR Blaster and high-performance specifications.

2.     Poco F2 Pro

You may know this phone as Redmi K30 Pro. Nevertheless, this is also one of the high-performance smartphones with IR Blaster. It has 8 GB of Ram, Snapdragon 865 chipset, and fast charging feature, which only takes 63 minutes to charge it to 100%. Moreover, it has four cameras on the back, with different resolutions. One of them is 64 MP cameras, which can take a high-quality image or record FHD video. With this Smartphone in your hand, you won’t have any problem operating the device that uses remote control. Just make sure you get the right app to operate the IR Blaster as a remote control.

3.     Xiaomi Mi 10

Among the Xiaomi product, the Mi series is the one that, mostly, has the IR Blaster feature. As for Mi 10, aside from the infrared feature, you also get Snapdragon 855 chipset in it with 8 GB of RAM. Both of them are enough to give you the best performance on a Smartphone. Now, to use the IR Blaster, you can install the third-party app that can change your mobile phone into a remote control. Once you do that, you can use this high-end Smartphone to control your TV, AC, or other devices that are compatible with the infrared feature and application.

4.     Huawei Mate 20 Pro

Next, we have the Huawei product. This one also has an IR blaster. However, compared to the other Huawei product that also has a similar feature, this product is quite old. You can still get and use it though if you want to enjoy its feature. As for performance, it uses Kirin 980 chipset with 6 GB of RAM. Moreover, the design is gorgeous. The curved display with a beautiful cut on the side of its body creates an elegant and stands out appearance. You can use it if you also want to look great with your phone/remote control in your hand.

5.     Redmi Note 8 Pro

Redmi Note 8 Pro is also a good choice for smartphones with an IR blaster feature. As you can see, it has a Pro word in its name. It means you will get a premium class specification within. It is true. Starting from the Hello G90T chipset with 6 GB of Ram, you will get a smooth performance. Then, it has at least 64 GB of storage to keep your file. The 64 MP main cameras are also ready to assist you to take a beautiful photo. It has all aspects that make it worth to be called the best Smartphone. 

6.     Xiaomi Mi A3

As for this product, apart from the IR Blaster, we also recommend it because it is an Android One device. Therefore, you will get the maximum benefits and the best experience from Google Services. With the two years of guaranteed and three years of a security update, you can use it as your companion in your daily routine. Of course, it is included the time when you can’t find you’re remote.

7.     Redmi Note 9

Redmi Note 9 is not only a phone with an IR blaster. It is also one of the unique phones that comes with five cameras. The different resolution gives you a chance to take the best quality photo. Moreover, to show the high-quality photo that you just took, it provides a Full HD+ display screen. You also can use it to watch a video in HD format. So, it is a real multi-function Smartphone with an IR blaster you can get today.

8.     Xiaomi Mi Note 10

Another Xiaomi product also entered our list of the best phone you can get for the IR blaster feature. We call it one of the best because it has high specifications. For example, Xiaomi uses Snapdragon 730G as the core of its performance. Along with 6GB of RAM, you can expect some smooth without lagging performance, even if you are in a multitasking situation. The 128 GB storage is big enough to be the place where you can keep your video or other important files. It is good for you who want to have a reliable Smartphone.

9.     Samsung Galaxy Note Edge

Samsung, even though they have already stopped to use the IR blaster feature on its latest product, also has a series that use that feature. Galaxy Note Edge is one of them. This device also has a very satisfying specification, from Super AMOLED display, Quad-Core 2.7 GHz chipset, and 3 GB RAM is enough for your daily activities. Moreover, this is one of the old products of this brand. So, you can get it at quite an affordable price right now.

10.  TCL 10 Pro

If you are looking for an affordable phone with an IR blaster that has a decent specification, TCL 10 Pro is the answer. It uses Snapdragon 675 CPU and quad-lens camera (64 MP) that can give you a super-wide photo. The 4,500 mAh battery also gives you enough juice to use it all day long. The 2340×1080 OLED displays also are good enough for watching movies or clips in the HD format. It is a good deal.

11.  Xiaomi Mi 10 Pro 5G

As we said before, the Mi series is one of many Xiaomi series that use IR blaster. This version, however, has much better specifications than the standard Mi 10 version. The Pro version uses Snapdragon 865 chipset. Furthermore, the 12GB of RAM is one of the biggest RAMs you can find in a Smartphone. In short, once you get this alternative remote control, you also will experience the best performance Smartphone that is available on the market. 

12.  LG G5

LG doesn’t release the IR blaster Smartphone now. However, if you have an access to get their old series, you can try LG G5. This Smartphone has a quite satisfying specification that won’t let you down. The Snapdragon 820, 1080p display resolution, and removable battery will please your need for top-quality smartphones. And, it is also cheaper than today, because it is an old series. You can get it for under $200 on the online store. Try to find the product in good condition or have been refurbished. That way you can still use it at its best performance.

13.  HTC One (M8)

If you are looking for a Smartphone with an IR blaster feature that also has an official app to operate that, HTC One M8 is what you are looking for. It has an HTC Sense TV app that you can use to control and use this infrared feature. The app will help you to turn this smartphone into a real remote control. As for specification, One M8 uses a 2.3 GHz quad-core processor. It has 16 GB storage, with a 128 GB SD card slot, if you want to expand its space.  

14.  LG G3

If you think that the G5 is too expensive for your budget, you can try the previous model, which is the LG G3. This product also has an IR blaster feature that lets you control HFTV, AC, or other equipment that uses the infrared to operate. However, this product has lower-class specifications than G5, such as a quad-core 2.5 GHz processor, 32 GB storage, and main camera with 13 MP resolutions. If you don’t mind with this midrange specification and performance, and the only aim for the IR blaster, you can get this product.

15.  Honor 30 Pro Plus

This is another series by Huawei. Therefore, the inside is similar to the top product from that brand. For example, it uses Kirin 990 SoC chipset. As for the RAM, it uses big size RAM like other Huawei product, which is 8 GB of RAM. Those components are the top component you can find on a Smartphone. You can use it for playing games, multimedia needs, and many other purposes. Therefore, you won’t be disappointed when you choose it as a Smartphone with an IR blaster.

16.  LeEco Le Max 2

This Smartphone is the best alternative if you can’t afford LG G5. Even though it is cheaper, but the specification is more than satisfactory. For you who love a selfie, it has 21 MP and 8 MP cameras. Then, it uses Snapdragon 820 and 4GB of RAM for its performance. As you can see, you get a quite good specification for smartphones here. So, this product is one of the best options you can take for an IR blaster phone. You can just put it in your house, so you can use it whenever you need the alternative remote control for your home appliances.

17.  Honor 8

Honor 8 is similar to Honor 30, the product from the brand under the Huawei flag. It features an IR blaster, like the Honor 30. Moreover, it has an affordable price, which is reasonable as its specification is in the midrange class. The core component provides enough boosts for smooth performance (Kirin 950 chipset and 4GB of RAM). The camera, however, is not as good as the Honor 30. Honor 8 only use two 12 MP back camera and 8MP front camera. If you are not a selfie lover or use your phone for communication and remote-control alternative, Honor 8 is your best choice.

18.  LG V20

LG V20 is the product that was released after G5. So, you can get better performance and improvement on this product. As you can see from its specification, it uses Snapdragon 820 chipset with 4 GB of RAM and 32 GB of storage. That shows how good this device can work for your needs. As for the IR blaster, LG also made a special app for using this feature. The app for this feature is called the Quick Remote app. You can get it already installed on this phone when you buy it. LG V20 is indeed one of the best choices you can choose for an IR blaster phone. 

19.  LeEco Pro 3

You also can try another product from the LeEco brand. LeEco Pro 3 has one of the most satisfying performance and specifications. It uses a Snapdragon 821 chipset, Adreno 530 GPU, 4GB of RAM, and 32GB of storage. You also can find the model with 6GB of RAM and 64GB of storage. You need to use a third-party app to use the IR blaster on this phone.

20.  Redmi Y3

Last but not least, Redmi present Y3 for the IR blaster phone that you want. It has midrange specifications, such as Snapdragon 632 chipset, 3GB of Ram, and 32 MP front camera, and a dual main camera with 12MP+2MP resolution. Plus, the IR blaster feature allows you to change this phone into a remote control.

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As you can see, most of the products we mentioned above are the old product. It is quite difficult to find the latest Smartphone with an IR blaster. However, with our list and guide above, now, you know which product you should buy. 

Arduino Uno Introduction

If you are an electronic enthusiast, you have probably heard of Arduino Uno. If you haven’t heard of it and you enjoy building electronics projects, then you are in the right place. Here, we will discuss what Arduino Uno is and why you should consider it for your electronics projects.

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What is Arduino Uno?

Arduino is an open-source platform for building electronics projects. It consists of both physical and software boards. It is more popular with people who are not experienced with technology as it is an easy-to-use platform that allows users to read inputs and turn into outputs. An example of input is light on a sensor while its output may be activating a motor.

Over the years, Arduino has gained popularity and has been used in thousands of projects ranging from basic to complex electronics projects.

Why Do People Prefer Arduino?

  • Simple and accessible

The simplicity of this platform is one of the top reasons why thousands of projects have been developed on it. Beginners are particularly happy with this platform as it offers an easy way to develop projects and applications. Advanced users are also excited about the flexibility of the platform.

  • Cross-platform

Another thing that you need to know about Arduino Uno is that it runs on Windows, Linux, and Macintosh OSX operating systems. Unlike other microcontrollers that are limited to Windows, Arduino allows users to develop electronic projects using different operating systems.

  • Open source and extensible software

Experienced can use the Arduino software, which is published as open-source tools. Users can expand the language through C++ libraries. If you want to understand the technical details, you can use the AVR C programming language.

  • Open source and extensible hardware

Both beginners and experienced circuit designers can use the plans of the Arduino boards, which are hosted under a Creative Commons license. This means that users can extend and improve it to fit their specific needs. Beginners have the option of building a breadboard version of the module to help them understand how it works.

  • Inexpensive

Compared to other microcontrollers, Arduino boards are inexpensive. For less than $50, you can get pre-assembled Arduino modules.

These are the features that define Arduino Uno. Clearly, you can see that both beginners and experienced circuit developers can use this open-source platform to start or develop their projects or applications. The good thing about it is that it is inexpensive and you can always try out with a low investment.

Basic information of Transistor D882

A transistor is a device that manages the flow of electrical power and electronic signals to a circuit. It has the ability to amplify and switch the electronic signal to help the electronic circuit perform a certain action for an electronic device.

The Transistor D882 is a common type of transistor found in many electrical applications. It is most commonly used in battery charger circuits, voltage regulator circuits, power supply circuits, amplify audio signals, and driving motors. For instance, audio amplifier equipment uses the transistor D882 the most. Everything from the bell circuits to the receiver circuits utilizes this transistor.

Here are the technical specifications of Transistor D882:

  • Max Collector-Emitter Voltage: 30V
  • Max Collector-Base Voltage: 40V
  • Max Collector Current: 3A
  • Max Emitter-Base Voltage: 5V
  • Max Collector Dissipation: 10 Watts
  • Max Transition Frequency: 90 MHz
  • Minimum DC Current Gain: 60
  • Maximum DC Current Gain: 400

You could make an entire audio amplifier device from this one transistor. Just note its max collector current is 3A, which means all the switching loads must be less than 3A. It will ensure you stay safe as you operate the amplifier. But there needs to be a good base resistor too. And if you’re operating the transistor in an environment under -55°C or higher than 150°C, then your transistor will be ruined.

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If you’re working on an electronic project as a hobbyist or for educational or commercial purposes, then you’ll get plenty of use out of a transistor D882. Unless you have experience as an electrician, it is a good idea to read a professionally written guidebook or tutorial on how to replace or install a transistor D882. It might be a small electronic device, but it is very powerful. Any mismanagement or miscalculation along the way could make your electronic device or circuits unsafe.

Basic Information of Transistor C1815

The transistor C1815 is used in a number of different educational and commercial electronic projects. Anytime audio frequency amplification is desired, the transistor C1815 will probably be used in the electronic device. Its collector-base voltage is 50 volts, so any circuit with under 50 volts can use the transistor.

Here are the technical specifications of transistor C1815:

  • Max Collector-Emitter Voltage: 50V
  • Max Collector-Base Voltage: 60V
  • Max Collector Current: 150mA
  • Max Emitter-Base Voltage: 5V
  • Max Collector Dissipation: 400 mW
  • Max Transition Frequency: 80 MHz
  • Minimum DC Current Gain: 70
  • Maximum DC Current Gain: 700

There are different audio amplification stages in which the C1815 transistor can be utilized. It can be used as a small audio amplifier, preamplifier, and as a switch for electronic circuits. The C1815 transistor has the ability to drive relays for low power LED lighting, high powered transistors, and any other component of an electronic circuit.

Suppose you need to replace the C1815 transistor in an electronic device or replace another transistor with the C1815 transistor. In that case, you need to know which transistors are the equivalent of a C1815 transistor in terms of specifications. Here are some of the equivalent transistors:

  • C945
  • C3920
  • C3916
  • C3922
  • C3921
  • C3919
  • C3917

However, these other transistors could have a different pin configuration. If you purchase an equivalent transistor, it must have the same pin configuration as the C1815 transistor. If you are not sure about which replacement is acceptable, then have an electrician help you out. BC557 is the PNP transistor of the C1815 model.

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Overall, the applications for the transistor C1815 include preamplifier circuits, Class A amplifiers, Class B amplifiers, Push/Pull configuration circuits, and all types of switching actions in electronic devices. Virtually all audio amplification devices must perform these electrical actions.

Basic Information of IC 7404

The IC 7404 is a hex inverter chip with a huge operating voltage range and wide operating conditions. It features six different inverter gates, and there are an input and an output for each gate. When an input signal is transmitted to one of the gates, it becomes inverted when it leaves through the corresponding output gate.

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For instance, if the input signal is low as it goes into the input gate, then it will come out as a high output signal from the output gate. The opposite is true, as well. If the input signal is high, the output signal is low. That is the purpose of an inverter chip, but especially the IC 7404.

There are 14 pins found on the IC 7404 chip. You’ll see most of the pins make up various input gates and output gates. Only two pins are not input or output gates: the positive supply pin and the ground pin.

Take a look at the gates below:

  • Pin 1 – A Input Gate 1
  • Pin 2 – Y Output Gate 1
  • Pin 3 – A Input Gate 2
  • Pin 4 – Y Output Gate 2
  • Pin 5 – A Input Gate 3
  • Pin 6 – Y Output Gate 3
  • Pin 7 – Ground
  • Pin 8, – Y Output Gate 4
  • Pin 9 – A Input Gate 4
  • Pin 10 – Y Output Gate 5
  • Pin 11 – A Input Gate 5
  • Pin 12 – Y Output Gate 6
  • Pin 13 – A Input Gate 6
  • Pin 14 – Positive Supply

All digital electronics have an inverter chip in them. The IC 7404 is constructed with either a PMOS transistor and a resistor or just an NMOS transistor. The output gates interface to TTL, CMOS, and NMOS.

Only an experienced electrician should replace an IC 7404 chip. It costs between $1 to $2 at a typical electrical parts store.

Non Polarized Capacitor Types

A capacitor is an electronic component with two terminals that store electricity temporarily. There are two types of capacitors: non-polarized and polarized. Non-polarized capacitors have no negative polarity or positive polarity, while polarized capacitors have a positive pole and negative pole.

There is only one type of polarized capacitor, which is the electrolytic capacitor. The non-polarized capacitors are more popular because they are inexpensive and have better longevity. It also doesn’t matter which direction they’re installed either.

However, the type of non-polarized capacitor does matter. There are at least eight different types of non-polarized capacitors. Let’s briefly examine them below.

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Ceramic Capacitors

Ceramic capacitors are used the most because they’re the cheapest and the most tested capacitors. They have been around since the 1930s but have seen improvements over the many decades. Ceramic capacitors are used a lot in radio frequency circuits.

Silver Mica Capacitors

You won’t see silver mica capacitors used too often because they cost more than most other capacitors. But they are highly durable capacitors because of their stability and temperature resistance. Circuits that depend on stability, such as filter circuits and oscillator circuits, will use silver mica capacitors.

Polyester Capacitors

These are cheaper capacitors with good accuracy and less prone to leakage. Unfortunately, their stability is not as good as other capacitor types.

Polystyrene Capacitors

You can get a lot of accuracy out of polystyrene capacitors. They’re difficult to find on the market, though. Most circuit designs don’t use them anymore. Besides, they were pretty expensive, to begin with.

Polycarbonate Capacitors

Polycarbonate capacitors are also kind of pricey, but they’re made from high-quality material and last a long time. They can withstand high temperatures without leaking.

Polypropylene Capacitors

Polypropylene capacitors are high performing capacitors with great stability but a tad expensive.

Teflon Capacitors

No other capacitor is more stable than a Teflon capacitor. It is one of the most accurate capacitors with virtually no leakage whatsoever.

Glass Capacitors

Glass capacitors may be the most expensive of all capacitors, but they’re extremely tough and stable.

IC 7474 Pin Diagram and its Application

The IC 7474 is an electrical chip consisting of dual D-type positive edge-triggered flip flops. Their outputs include preset and clear. Flip flops are often seen in electronic and computer devices because they have the ability to store data. Each flip-flop can store approximately one bit of data. There are many types of flip-flops, but the “D-type” indicates it is for storing data.

Diagram and Application

There are 14 pins associated with the IC 7474 chip. Each pin has a specific purpose in making an electrical circuit function. The pins are as follows:

Pin 1 – Clear 1 Input

Pin 2 – D1 input

Pin 3 – Clock 1 Input

Pin 4 – Preset 1 Input

Pin 5 – Q1 output

Pin 6 – Complement Q1 output

Pin 7 – Ground

Pin 8 – Complement Q2 output

Pin 9 – Q2 output

Pin 10 – Preset 2 Input

Pin 11 – Clock 2 Input

Pin 12 – D2 input

Pin 13 – Clear 2 Input

Pin 14 – Positive Supply

The D input is like a memory cell, delay line, or zero-order hold. When D input information is triggered to go to the flip flops, the triggering has nothing to do with the transition of time. It has more to do with the level of voltage.

However, the D input information can be altered whether the clock is set to high or low. This won’t affect any of the outputs if there are no violations of the hold times and data setup. On the other hand, if the clear inputs or preset inputs have a low logic level, the outputs will be reset no matter the logic levels of the clock inputs.

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Overall, the IC 7474 has wide operating conditions because of its large voltage range operation. If you were to purchase the IC 7474 chip separately, it would only cost you a few dollars. But you must have experience working with electrical components if you’re going to install or replace this chip. That way, you can stay safe.

Basic Information of 74LS138 3 to 8 Line Decoder IC

74LS138 3 to 8 Line Decoder IC utilizes the silicon-gate TTL technology. The design of the chip is for de-multiplexing or decoding applications. The 74LS138 comes with three inputs to eight output setup. It also has a special design that allows it to be used in data-routing applications or high-performance memory-decoding. It is effective in applications that require short propagation delay times.

The decoders have a special function of minimizing the effects of system decoding in high-performance memory systems.

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74LS138 3 to 8 Line Decoder IC Configuration

The basic configuration of the 74LS138 3 to 8 Line Decoder IC is that it has 3 inputs to 8 outputs setup. Each pin in the decoder has a special function that differentiates it from the rest.

A, B, C: these are address input pins

G2A (Enable input – active LOW), G2B (Enable input – active LOW), G1(Enable input – active HIGH)

GND – Ground

Y0, Y1, Y2, Y3, Y4, Y5, Y6, Y7: Out pins

Users can pick different available packages of this device.

Features of 74LS138 3 to 8 Line Decoder IC

The dominating features of the 74LS138 include the following:

  • It has been designed for high-speed performance
  • It simplifies cascading with the incorporation of the three enable pins
  • It has de-multiplexing capabilities
  • It delivers high performance
  • At has an ESD protection
  • It has balanced propagation delays
  • Its inputs can accept voltages that are higher than VCC
  • A typical propagation delay is 21nS
  • Another great feature is that it is consumption-friendly when it comes to power. It does not consume a lot of power, thus, help in reducing the cost of power. Its typical consumption is 32mW
  • It can operate within a wide range of temperatures i.e. from -40 degrees Celsius to +125 degrees Celsius.

An overview of 74LS138 3 to 8 Line Decoder IC

The chip has been designed for high-performance us in memory-decoding or data-routing applications that need short propagation delay times.

In most applications, any delays are not tolerated because the performance is determined by the memory unit data exchange rate. Using the 74LS138 3 line decoder is ideal in such applications because the delay times are permissible using this decoder.


You can use it for:

  • Servers
  • Line decoders
  • Digital systems
  • Line de-multiplexing
  • Memory circuits
  • Telecom circuits.