What is Microprocessor
Processors usually refer to microprocessors, microcontrollers and digital signal processors. Microprocessors (MPUs) usually represent a powerful CPU, but they are not chips designed for any specific computational purposes that already exist. Such chips are often the core CPUs of personal computers and high-end workstations. The most common microprocessors are Motorola’s 68K series and Intel’s X86 series.
What is Microtroller
Microcontroller has been developed rapidly and widely used in nearly 30 years since it appeared in the 1970s. With the rapid development of microelectronics technology, microcontrollers have been widely used in the fields of household appliances, computing and peripherals, communications, industrial control, automation, intelligent equipment and instrumentation because of their outstanding advantages such as good performance, small size, excellent price and complete functions. They have become scientific research, teaching and industrial technology reform. Build the most powerful tool. From the simple microcontrollers with Princeton structure to RISC microcontrollers with Harvard bus structure, microcontrollers have made rapid development.
Eight-bit microcontrollers are the largest number of microcontrollers currently used, and the most companies are committed to cultivating the market. Their market and price competition are extremely fierce, and various multi-functional requirements and different specifications of products are also very fast. With the rapid development of integrated circuit and semiconductor technology and the continuous competition and integration of FPGA and SOC technology, the design of electronic products is gradually developing towards the direction of better system performance, lower power consumption, lower cost, higher reliability and easier development. Therefore, the rapid introduction of 8-bit microcontroller chips or IP Core with high performance-price ratio, low power consumption and high economic benefits in line with market demand has become a hot spot of competition among many companies nowadays.
According to the instruction system, microcontrollers can be divided into CISC, RISC, RISC-like (RISC-LIKE) and so on. The traditional MCS51 controller belongs to CISC type, and its code density is high, but most instructions need multiple clock cycles to complete. RISC instruction density is low, but instruction efficiency is high. RISC-like model has both advantages of CISC and RISC. The reason why RISC and RISC-like instruction have such high instruction efficiency is due to the hard wiring structure and pipeline structure brought about by small instruction set. Simple instruction sets can be decoded by hard wiring without microcode control, which improves the decoding efficiency. The pipeline structure divides the instructions into several steps. When the pipeline fills up, the average execution time (CPI) of each instruction is about one clock cycle.
Microntrollers VS single chip microcomputer)
Early microcontrollers integrated a computer into a chip to realize embedded applications, so they were called single chip computers. Subsequently, in order to better meet the embedded application in the field of control, some circuit units that meet the control requirements are continuously expanded in the MCU. At present, single-chip computer has been widely known as microcontroller (MCU). There are also microcontrollers developed by microprocessors, such as Intel’s 386EX, which is a very successful version of 80386 microprocessors. Like microprocessors in embedded applications, it is also called embedded microprocessors. The high-end products of embedded processors include ARM of Advanced RISC Machines, MIPS of Silicon Graphics, PowerPC of IBM and Motorola, X86 and i960 chips of Intel, AMD’s AM386EM and Hitachi’s SHRISC chips. The CPU in Digital Signal Processors (DSPs) is specially designed for computing discrete-time signal processing very quickly, such as in situations where audio and video communications are required. DSPs contain multipliers and adders, which can perform such operations faster than other processors. The most common ones are Ti’s TMS320CXX series and Motorola’s 5600X series.
What is Central Processing Unit
Central Processing Unit (CPU), abbreviated as CPU, is one of the main devices of electronic computer. Its function is mainly to interpret computer instructions and process data in computer software. CPU provides basic digital computing characteristics for computer design. CPU, storage device and input/output device are the three core components of modern microcomputers. CPUs manufactured by integrated circuits are often referred to as microprocessors. Since the mid-1970s, single-chip microprocessors have replaced almost all other types of CPUs. Today, the term CPU has become a synonym for almost all microprocessors.
Composition of CPU
- Operator: arithmetic and logic (components: arithmetic logic unit, accumulator, register group, path converter, data bus)
- Controller: Reset and enable (components: counter, instruction register, instruction decoder, state register, timing generator, micromanipulation signal generator)
Self-understanding of MPU, MCU and CPU
- MCU is a chip similar to PC, but not as powerful as PC, but it can be embedded in other devices to control it. So microcontrollers and microcontrollers are actually the same concept.
- Microprocessor refers to CPU, which is a component of PC and is used to understand and execute instructions.
- DSP is a CPU with special structure, which is specially used to process various functions of digital signal.
- At present, many microprocessors have gradually evolved into microcontrollers (MCUs), such as arm, so these concepts begin to converge, so processors include CPU, MCU, DSP.
- ARM is currently synonymous with embedded processors: encapsulated by CPU, a small amount of RAM, FLASH, and other interfaces.