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Basic Knowledge of Intelligent Sensor

Intelligent sensors, also known as “smart sensors”, are a tool for human access to information and an important part of modern information technology. In the traditional sense, the output of the sensor is mostly an analog signal. It does not have signal processing and networking capabilities. It needs to be connected to a specific measuring instrument to perform signal processing and transmission functions.

What is Intelligent Sensor

The concept of intelligent sensors was first introduced by NASA in the development of the spacecraft and was formed in 1979. Spacecraft require a large number of sensors to send data to the ground or spacecraft, such as temperature, position, speed and attitude, even with large computers, it is difficult to process such large data at the same time. In addition, spacecraft limits the size and weight of computers. It is desirable that the sensor itself has information processing capabilities so that when the sensor is used in conjunction with a microprocessor, an intelligent sensor will appear.

Intelligent sensors are able to detect conditions and respond. Smart sensors should not be confused with smart sensors (” Intelligent” refers to advanced technology). Smart sensors may have advanced features, but there are no conditional features that make it “intelligent”.

Intelligent sensors are able to manage their functions due to the stimulation of external functions (external environments). This shows that smart sensors have advanced learning, adaptive and signal processing architectures, all integrated in one integrated circuit. Smart sensors require dedicated hardware called signal conditioning circuitry to monitor and control themselves and other devices.

Intelligent Sensor Structures

The intelligent sensor system is mainly composed of sensors, microprocessors and related circuits. The sensor converts the measured physical and chemical quantities into corresponding electrical signals, sends them to the signal modulation circuit, and then filters, amplifies and A/D converts them to the microprocessor. The microprocessor calculates, stores, analyzes and processes the received signal, adjusts the feedback loop and signal conditioning circuit of the sensor to adjust and control the measurement process; on the other hand, transmits the processing result to the output interface, the interface circuit The output interface is digitally customized based on the processed output format. The microprocessor is the heart of the smart sensor. Thanks to the functionality of the various software, the sensor is intelligent and greatly improves the performance of the sensor.

structure of intelligent sensor
structure of intelligent sensor

Intelligent Sensor Features

  • High precision
  • High reliability and high stability
  • High signal to noise ratio and high resolution
  • Strong self adaptability
  • Higher performance and price ratio

Intelligent Sensor Technology

According to the integrated method of sensors and computers, the current sensing technology uses the following three specific ways to implement smart sensors.

  • Non-integrated module mode. The non-integrated smart sensor is an intelligent sensor system consisting of a traditional basic sensor, a signal conditioning circuit and a microprocessor with a digital bus interface. With the development of fieldbus control systems, this non-integrated smart sensor has developed rapidly. The original production equipment of the automated instrument manufacturer has basically no change. In addition, a digital microprocessor bus interface board is assembled, and intelligent software for communication, control, self-calibration, self-compensation and self-diagnosis is implemented to realize the intelligent sensor function. This is the most economical and fastest way to build intelligent sensors.
  • Comprehensive implementation. The intelligent sensor system uses micromachining technology and large-scale integrated circuit technology, and uses silicon as the basic material to manufacture sensitive components, signal conditioning circuits and microprocessor units, and integrate them on the chip. The integrated implementation enables smart sensors to be miniaturized and structurally integrated for improved accuracy and stability. After the array of sensitive components is composed of an array and corresponding image processing software, graphics can be imaged and a multi-dimensional image sensor can be constructed. At the time, smart sensors have reached their most advanced form.
  • Mixed implementation. There are many challenges in implementing smart sensor systems on a chip. Depending on the needs and possibilities, we can integrate all the integrated links of the system, such as sensitive units, signal conditioning circuits, microprocessor units and digital bus interfaces, and integrate them on two or three chips in different combinations.

Intelligent Sensor Applications

  • Molecular Sensor
  • Bioluminescence Sensor
  • Wireless Sensor
  • CompoundTouch Sensor
  • Artificial Hair Sensor
  • Air Sensor
  • Sleep – Promoting “Sense” Sensor
  • EMG Sensor
  • Skin Sensor
  • Temperature Sensor

Advantages of Intelligent Sensor

  • software technology can achieve high precision information acquisition
  • low cost
  • certain programming automation capabilities, functional diversification

Development Trends of Intelligent Sensor Technology

  • To the development of high precision. As the level of automated production increases, so does the demand for sensors. We must develop new sensors with high sensitivity, high precision, fast response and good interchangeability to ensure the reliability of production automation.
  • Developed to high reliability and wide temperature range. The reliability of the sensor directly affects the anti-jamming performance of the electronic device. The development of sensors with high reliability and wide temperature range will be the eternal direction. The development of new materials such as ceramics will be promising.
  • Towards miniaturization. The functions of various control devices are getting stronger and stronger, and the smaller the parts are, the better. Therefore, the size of the sensor itself should be as small as possible. This requires the development of new materials and processing technologies. At present, the volume of the sensor is made of silicon. small. For example, conventional accelerometers are made of gravity blocks and springs. It is bulky, has poor stability and short life. Silicon acceleration sensors manufactured by various micromachining technologies such as lasers are small in size, interchangeable, and highly reliable.
  • Towards digital and intelligent development. With the development of modernization, the function of the sensor has surpassed the traditional function. The output is no longer a single analog signal (0~10mV), but after the digital signal processing microcomputer, some even have control functions, which is called digital sensor.
  • Develop to the network. Network development is an important direction for sensor development. The role and advantages of the network are gradually emerging. Network sensors are bound to promote the development of electronic science and technology.

Intelligent Sensor Development Focus

  • The application of machine intelligence in fault detection and prediction.
  • Strengthen the research and development of multi-dimensional state sensing.
  • Remote sensing target component analysis.
  • Sensor intelligence, which can effectively recycle resources.
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